Citation Formatting Examples

The following examples are based on the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, published in April 2009.



Citations for books should include: 
1.  Author/editor name
2.  Title of the book, in italics
3.  Edition (if applicable)
4.  City of publication, publisher, year of publication
5.  Type of publication (in this case, print)


Author Name. Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Print. 

Sample citation:

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor Books, 1959. Print.

Periodical Articles

Citations for periodical articles should include:
1.  Author name
2.  Article title, in quotation marks
3.  Name of the magazine/newspaper/journal, in italics
4.  Volume number (for a scholarly journal)
5.  Issue number (for a scholarly journal)
6.  Date of publication (for scholarly journals, just the year -- for other periodicals, include the full date)
8.  Page numbers
9.  Name of database (if accessed online)
10. Type of publication (print or web)
11. Date of access (if accessed online) 

Periodical Articles (Magazines, Newspapers, Journals): Print


Author Name (if available).  "Title of Article." Title of Publication Date of 

    Publication: Page Numbers. Print.

Sample citations: 

Haberman, Clyde. "Job Seekers Get a Gift of Goodwill." New York Times 

    8 Dec. 2009: A28. Print.

Walsh, Bryan.  "A River Ran Through It."  Time 14 Dec. 2009: 57-63. Print.

Lupton, Mary Jane. "Zora Neale Hurston and the Survival of the

    Female."  Southern Literary Journal 15.1 (1982): 45-54. Print. 

Periodical Articles (Magazines, Newspapers, Journals): Online Database


Author Name. "Title of Article." Title of Scholarly Journal

    Volume.Number (Year of Publication): Page Numbers.  Name of 

    Database. Web. Date of Access.


Author Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine/Newspaper Date of 

    Publication: Page Numbers. Name of Database. Web. Date of Access.

Sample citations:

Friedel, Jan.  "The State of Iowa:  A Model Title IX Program."  Women's

    Studies Quarterly
10.2 (1982): 22-24. JSTOR. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.

Ballard, Scotty, and Javonne Stewart. "The Ministry of Hip-Hop." Jet 

    28 Aug. 2006: 30-34. ProQuest. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.

"Suffragists Plan New Work." Chicago Daily Tribune 7 Jan. 1900: 8. 
    ProQuest Historical Newspapers. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.

Reference Articles

Citations for encyclopedia and other reference articles should include:
1.  Author name (if available)
2.  Title of article, in quotation marks
3.  Title of reference book/encyclopedia, in italics
4.  Edition (if available)
5.  Number of the volume you used
6.  City of publication, publisher, date of publication
7.  Type of publication (print or web)

Reference Articles: Print


Author Name. "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Edition number. 
    Volume Number. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Print.

Sample citation:

Firestone, Reuven. "Jerusalem in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam." 

    Encyclopedia of Religion. 2nd ed. Vol. 7. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005.


Reference Articles: Online Database

For citing periodical articles from an online database, see above.


Author Name.  "Title of Article." Title of Reference Book. Edition. Title of 

    Database. Edition. Publisher or Sponsor (if unavailable, use n.p.), Date of 
    Publication. Web. Date of Access.

Sample Citations:

"Sparta." Encyclopaedia Britannica.  Encyclopaedia Britannica Online School

    Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. Web. 8 Dec. 2009.

"Democratic Republic of Congo: Country Overview." World Geography Online.

    ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 16 Dec.2009.

Edwards, Roanne. "Shirley Chisholm." Africana: the Encyclopedia of 

    the African and African American Experience. 2nd ed. Oxford African 

    American Studies Center. Oxford University Press, 2009. Web. 8 Dec. 


Other web sources



Author Name. Title of Work. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of 

    Publication. Title of Database. Web. Date of Access.

Sample citation: 

Gall, Timothy L., and Jeneen M. Hobby, eds. Worldmark Encyclopedia of the

    Nations. 12th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2007. Gale Virtual Reference Library.

    Web. 16 Dec. 2009.



Editor or Creator of web page (if available).  Title of Web Page.  Sponsoring 

    Organization (if not available, use n.p.), Date of Publication (if not 

    available, use n.d.).  Web.  Date of Access.

Sample citation:

The Library of Congress.  American Memory.  Library of Congress, n.d.  

    Web.  8 Dec. 2009.




Artist or Creator (if available).  Title of Image.  Date created (use n.d. if unknown).  Medium

     of composition.  Title of Database or Website.  Medium of Publication.  Access date.

     <URL: optional>.

Sample citations:

Tinkler, Michael.  Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus.  31 Jan. 2008.  Photograph.  Flickr.  Web.

     1 Dec. 2011.  <>

Appian Way: remains of Roman tombs.  n.d.  Photograph.  Encyclopedia Britannica.

     Web.  1 Dec. 2011.  <>

Krishna and Radha in the Forest of Vrindavana.  1730.  Painting.  Encyclopaedia Britannica

     Image Quest.  Web.  5 Sept. 2012. <>

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